VITAMINS AND MINERALS MAIN FUNCTIONS AND DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES (Simplified)

VITAMIN A
As an  important role in vision and reproduction.

RDA:

• Infants and children – 2000 iµ/day to 3300 iµ/day.

• Females –  4000 iµ/day

• Males – 5000 iµ/day

VITAMIN D

Helps in calcium and phosphorous absorption in the bones, teeth and intestines.

RDA:

• Infants, children and adolescents – 10 mcg/day

• Men and women – 5mcg/day

VITAMIN E

It is an antioxidants and also protects the cells from damage which may cause some cancers and cardiovascular diseases.

RDA:

• Children –  6 mg/day

• Males – 15 mg/day

• Female – 15 mg/day

• Pregnancy – 15 mg/day

• Lactating – 19 mg/day

VITAMIN K

It has a role in the formation and regulation of blood clotting proteins.

RDA:

• Children – 30-55 µg/day

• Males – 120 µg/day

• Females – 90 µg/day

VITAMIN B1 (THIAMIN)

A coenzyme involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates and proteins.

RDA:

• Children 0.5 – 0.6mgday

• Males – 1.3 mg/day

• Females – 1.1 mg/day

• Pregnancy and lactation –  1.4 mg/day

VITAMINS B2 (RIBOFLAVIN)

It is a coenzyme in oxidation and reduction reactions.

RDA:

• Children – 0.5 – 0.6 mg/day

• Males –  1.3 mg/day

• Females –  1.1 mg/day

• Pregnancy – 1.4mg/day

• Lactating – 1.6mg/day

VITAMIN B3 (NIACIN)

It is a coenzyme in energy metabolism and hydrogen transfer with numerous dehydrogenases.

RDA:

• Children –  6 to 8 mg/day

• Males –  16mg/day

• Females – 14 mg/day

• Pregnancy – 18 mg/day

• Lactating –  17mg/day

VITAMIN B12

Essential for the development and maintenance of the red blood cells.

RDA:

• Children 0.9- 1.2 µg/day

• Males – 2.4 µg/day

• Females 2.4 µg/day

• Pregnancy 2.6 µg/day

• Lactating – 2.8 µg/day

FOLIC ACID (FOLATE)

It has an important role in red blood cells, DNA and RNA synthesis.

RDA:

• Children – 150 to 200 µg/day

• Males – 400 µg/day

• Females – 400 µg/day

• Pregnancy – 600 µg/day

• Lactating – 500 µ g/day

CALCIUM

It is a structure component of teeth and bones.

RDA:

• Children – 800 mg/day

• Males – 1000 mg/day

• Females – 1000mg/day

• Pregnancy and lactating – 1200 mg/day

IRON

It is a component of haemoglobin which transports oxygen to the body tissues.

RDA:

• Children – 5.8 to 8.9 mg/day

• Males – 13.7 mg/day

• Females – 11.3 mg/day

• Pregnancy

• Lactating – 15 mg/day

MAGNESIUM 

A structural component of bones and teeth.

RDA:

• Children – 80 to 130mg/day

• Males – 410 mg/day

• Females – 310 mg/day

• Pregnancy – 350 mg/day

• Lactating – 310 mg/day

PHOSPHORUS 

It is a structural component of bones and teeth.

RDA:

• Children – 460 to 500 mg/day

• Males – 700 mg/day

• Females 700 mg/day

POTASSIUM 

It is important in acid base balance.

RDA:

• Children – 3000 to 3800 mg/day

• Males – 4700 mg/day

• Females – 4700 mg/day

• Lactating – 5100 mg/day

ZINC

It is important in DNA and protein synthesis.

RDA:

• Children – 3 to 5mg/day

• Males – 11mg/day

• Females – 8mg/day

• Pregnancy – 11mg/day

• Lactating – 12mg/day

REFERENCE

World Health Organization (2016). Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements. Food and Nutrition Division FAO Rome. Pg 29-290.

Alberta Health Services (2013). Nutrition Guidelines Vitamins and Minerals. Pg 3-9.

Corinne H Robinson (2000). Basic Nutrition and Diet Therapy. Fourth Edition. Pg 91-111.

 

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