Immune system’s function is to protect the body against disease causing microorganisms (virus, bacteria, fungi and protozoa). In a cold season, the immunity is weakened by virus (rhinovirus, influenza, para influenza and corona-virus) resulting to one catching a cold.

The following are foods that will boost your immunity this cold season.

1.Citrus fruits

Citrus fruits contain vitamin C that boosts our immunity by increasing the production of white blood cells. Citrus fruits examples are tangerine, oranges, lime, kiwi and lemons.

2. Spinach

Spinach contain antioxidants, vitamin C and beta carotene, all which boosts our immunity.

3. Chicken soup.

There are amino acids released when boiling chicken. They make the chicken soup have anti inflammatory effects. Asthmatic patients or people with a cold ought to take the soup to ease inflammation on the upper respiratory tract.

4. Ginger.

Ginger is a spice that can be added to foods or fluids to improve taste. It is also an anti inflammatory and

antiseptic. Ginger’s anti inflammatory effects help lower inflammation on the respiratory tract and clear the throat. Ginger boosts immunity by preventing disease causing microorganisms from entering the body system.

Ginger contain antihistamine effects that control cold brought about by allergens.


5. Garlic.

Garlic is a spice added to food to add flavor. It also boosts immunity through its sulfur bonding component,allicin. Allicin is a convert of alliin when crushed or chewed.

garlic boosts the functionality of the white blood cells in fighting the cold causing viruses.

6. Plain yogurt

Probiotics in plain yogurt acts as an anti-inflammation, therefore, reducing the severity and duration of a cold.

Zinc, magnesium and selenium in plain yogurt boosts a person’s immunity.

7. Pomegranate.

Pomegranate has anti-inflammatory effects and it contains vitamin C which reduce the effects and possibilities of catching a cold.

8. Turmeric.

Curcumin found in turmeric rhizomatous boosts immunity.

Turmeric increases white blood cells in the body that fight the virus that cause a cold.

9. Natural honey.

Natural honey contains probiotics from flowers. The probiotics have anti-inflammatory effects that prevents a cold from becoming severe and prevents one from catching a cold in general.


Babies health, fitness and health, HEALTH AND NUTRITION


Health practitioners advise mothers to exclusively breastfeed their babies during their first 6 months of life. This means a mother has to frequently feed to have plenty of breast milk. Mothers are encouraged to take balanced diets and plenty of fluids.

Losing weight during the first six months after giving birth is a problem to many mothers. The fat is mostly concentrated around the waist line. Dieting is not an option for these lactating mother’s and exercising is tricky because they have less or no “me time”.


  • A lactating mother does not have to binge eat to acquire plenty of breast milk . A balanced diet with the essential nutrients and a lot of fluids is all the mother needs. They can take three large nutritionally balanced meals or four to six small nutritionally balanced meals in a day with fluids and fruits taken in between. Fluids and fruits keep the mother full and so they do not snack in between meals.
  • A mother can engage in small, less time consuming exercises. They may not seem effective but they lead to weight loss when done passionately. She can exercise before going to the shower so as to clean off sweat and dirt for hygiene purposes.
  • Lastly, exclusively breastfeeding is believed to be the ideal way to lose weight during the first 6 months of giving birth. Baby under 6 months of age get the essential nutrients from Mothers through EBF. Mother’s should be cautious not to lose all the essential nutrients their bodies require. A mother can lose up to 400 calories a day from EBF.

All said, a mother’s main focus at this stage should be her child.

Find here some fitness tools to help in the weight loss journey.

Babies health


Image result for pics of cradle capCradle cap, also known as infantile Seborrheic Dermatitis is an inflammatory condition characterized by whitish or yellowish crusty patch on an infants scalp (anterior fontanelle), eyebrows, eyelids and/or ears. Mostly cradle cap is not dangerous to the baby neither does it itch.

It occurs from birth to 8 months of life. In the advanced ages cradle cap is referred to as dandruff. Many believe that it is a fungal infection even though it is not scientifically proven. The scientific explanation for the formation of the cradle cap is the infant’s sebaceous glands overact due to the mother’s hormones produced in pregnancy. The overacting sebaceous glands produce sebum which prevents the skin’s cells from drying and falling off. As a result the old cells attach to the infant’s scalp.

Caution should be taken if the cradle cap becomes severely itchy, turns red and/or spreads.

Cradle cap disappears on its own but some caregivers are so eager to get rid of it. Here are some easy home remedies:

  • Wash the affected area with baby shampoo repeatedly and then gently comb the hair around the area to remove the flakes.
  • Apply oil (olive, almond or coconut oil) on the babies scalp, leave it for sometime (mostly 15 minutes) then comb the baby’s hair to remove the flakes. Wash gently with baby’s shampoo after this procedure.
  • Mix water with a spoon or two of baking powder to form a paste then apply it on the baby’s scalp leaving it for a minute. Rinse the paste off and make sure no trace of baking soda is left on the scalp. Baking soda is safe for the skin and it is an anti fungal and antibacterial.
  • A mother’s breast milk helps get rid of cradle cap. Apply the breast milk overnight then comb the flakes off in the morning. Rinse with the babies shampoo.
  • Massage the baby’s scalp with petroleum jelly preferably Vaseline. Rinse with warm water then gently scrub off the flakes. Rinse once more with warm water.
  • Gently scrub daily to get an effective result. Massage the scalp with oil or petroleum jelly after every scrub.

Take precaution when getting rid of the cradle cap so as not to harm the baby’s scalp especially on the fontanelles.

rheumatoid arthritis and health, Uncategorized


Rheumatoid arthritis is the inflammation of joints. The chronic condition mostly affects fingures, toes, knees and ankle joints. If untreated eyes, skin, heart, blood vessels, salivary glads, kidneys and lungs will be damaged.

Its occurrence is because of the immune system attacking the body tissues. The lining of joints is damaged and the affected area has a painful swell, becomes red and it feels warm. This is inflammation. Small joints are affected in mild arthritis and big joints in severe rheumatoid arthritis.

Here are some signs that can tell you are suffering from rheumatoid arthritis:

  1. Warm, red  and swollen  joints.Stiffness of the joints. It is especially painful in the morning.
  2. Catching a fever.
  3. Feeling tired (fatigue).

Rheumatoid Arthritis risk factors:

  • Women are the most affected because of their hormonal imbalances. They are at a high risk of getting affected when they take contraceptives.
  • The condition is generic so you are at a high risk of getting the disease if your family members have the disease.
  • The elderly are at the risk of suffering from the disease as compared to young people.
  • Tobacco smoking increases the severity of the disease especially for those who acquire it genetically.
  • Overweight and obesity.


  • Take NSAIDS to reduce or stop inflammation. Aspirin is the best NSAID for rheumatoid arthritis but a physician has to prescribe it.
  • Dieting to shed off the excess weight.
  • Exercising to shed off weight.
  • Avoid tobacco at all cost.


Diabetes better known as diabetes mellitus is condition in which the body is not able to produce insulin or utilize the insulin produced. Insulin is produced in the pancreas’ beta cells of islet of Langerhans.

There are two major types of diabetes mellitus, DM type 1 and type 2. DM  type 1 is insulin dependent and it mostly begins at childhood. Pancreas cannot produce insulin or it produces less insulin. The affected people have to inject insulin through their skin into the adipose tissues. In DM type 2 the body’s cells does not utilize stored glucose. As a result blood sugar levels go up. Type 2 diabetes may be genetics or caused by obesity and the kind of food people consume.

Diabetes and nutrition is better explained in DM type 2. Obesity is a risk factor. Energy storage is in excess for an obese person as compared to a person with a normal BMI. The excess energy is converted into glucose resulting to a high blood sugar because the cells might not be able to utilize the excess glucose. Such a person should work towards changing their lifestyle. Carbohydrates, fats and proteins, in this case, should be consumed in moderation. High fiber, legumes, low fat milk and whole grains are the best carbohydrates for diabetic patients. They take long to get digested regulating blood sugar unlike other carbohydrates that are digested faster leading to a quick rise in blood sugar levels. Empty carbohydrates such as sweets, biscuits and sodas should be avoided at all cost because they only contain  refined sugars which contributed to higher levels of sugars in the blood.The patients are advised to take unsaturated fats. Fat should constitute only 35% of their meals. If possible, the patients should avoid using fat to prepare every meal. An example is boiling cabbages and kales instead of buttering them. Proteins should contain low to no fat, for example, lean meat. The diabetic patients are advised to take protein 2 to 3 times a week and should constitute 15% of the meal. Here is a guide of the best food for diabetic people to take.

The overweight and obese patients are supposed to exercise to burn the excess fat.  The exercises run for 30 minutes 3 to 4 times a week. You will find Here guides to exercising at home or the gym.



fitness and health, Uncategorized


Working out is not an activity done by many. A number of people view it as a tedious, time wasting activity. Dieting is an alternative but may not be the answer to a fit body and good health.

Why is fitness important? Our bodies need to be tuned to function properly. Some chronic diseases, to be precise, are caused by unfitness. Hypertension which leads to stroke and kidney failure can be controlled by working out. You lower or relieve yourself from stress when you work out. Ulcers and hypertension caused by stress can be cured through exercising. Your brain and the entire body’s functionality improves through the same. Excess fat is burnt out. The fat that form clots in arteries and veins causing high blood pressure and stroke. The fat that leads to diabetes type 2. Heart attack occurs mostly due to excess fat in the body that partially or completely form clots in the arteries that carry blood to and from the heart.

You do not need to be a fitness freak, you do not have to spend more hours exercising and exercising is not always boring. When starting out try some easy exercises such as jogging and some few sit-ups. Turn on the music or form a workout group to avoid been bored during workouts. Start out with a 10 minutes workout and progress as your body adapts.

These exercises and fitness aerobics icons by Graphixmania will help you through your fitness routine in the gym or at home.





Creatures such as mice, rats, insects and microorganisms (bacteria, virus, yeast and moulds) cause food spoilage. Enzymes, also, cause food spoilage.
The metabolism of bacteria mostly take place in foods that have organic nitrogen. Examples of these foods include protein foods (Milk, meat, eggs, beans and peas are some of the examples).
Moisture has to be present for the biological mechanism to take place. In cases of frozen, dry, sugary or salty food, metabolism will not take place. Sugar and salt have higher concentration than the bacterial cytoplasm. This may lead to osmosis on the bacterial cytoplasm leading to the bacteria becoming dehydrated.
*freezing, adding salt and sugar and drying are forms of preserving food. The freezing and drying methods are, however, reversible once moisture is available for the bacteria. The reason behind this is the spores of some bacteria remain dormant under conditions of dehydration.
Bacteria do survive under a wide range of temperature. They are divided into three groups depending on their optimum temperature:
• Psychrophilic bacteria: they cause damage to refrigerated food because they survive and grow at a temperature of below 20° C.
• Mesophilic bacteria: they grow at a temperature of 37° C. Affects food such as milk and meat.
• Thermophilic bacteria: they grow in temperature up to 60°C. They cause little spoilage to food.
A temperature below the range of a group will slow down the rate of metabolism of a bacteria but will not destroy it.
A temperature above the range of a group will kill/destroy the bacteria. An example, the vegetative bacteria are killed are killed by temperature above 100° C.
Some bacteria are either:
• Aerobic in that they need oxygen to metabolise.
• Anaerobic in that they do not need oxygen to metabolize.
Enzymes control the metabolic activities of bacteria and they function at a certain pH and food poisoning need a pH of 7.
This includes the presence of poisonous chemicals or bacteria.
Poisonous chemicals include additives in food, weed killers, pesticides and heavy metals such as mercury and lead.
These foods contain natural toxins and can be dangerous if consumed in large amounts:
1. Onions
They contain anaemia producing ingredient which if taken in large amounts sometimes cause ill effects.
2. Potato
Potatoes which have turned green contain solanine which is dangerous if taken in large amounts.
3. Rhubarb
It has oxalic acid throughout the plant. If stems are eaten they have no effect but its leaves are dangerous because they have higher concentrations of the acid.
4. Cassava
It contains concentrations of cyanides and it can be poisonous when eaten raw. It can still be poisonous when processed if it contains II ppm.
5. Cabbage and cauliflower
They contain goitre producing compounds.

Moulds (mycotoxins) and fungi contaminate some foods.
A fungal disease in in rye, Ergot, produce a powerful toxic chemical in grains. Ergotism develops when the toxic is taken frequently.
A group of toxins produced by mould, Aflatoxins, cause illness in animals fed on imported food stuffs.
• Not all bacteria are bad. Bacteria in yoghurt and cheese are useful to the body.
• Bacterial infections can be prevented by good food hygiene.
• It causes food poisoning when ingested in large numbers by a healthy adult and in much lesser number when ingested by infants, children and the sick.
• Symptoms which include nausea and vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, headaches, faintness and chills appear 12 to 36 hours of eating and may last for 2 to 3 days.
• Main sources are human and animal faeces, duck eggs, poultry and fish.
• Cows and pigs, mainly, carry salmonellae in their intestines and there is cross contamination during slaughter and in the kitchen.
• Cold cooked meats, low temperature cooked food and mayonnaise spread salmonellae when eaten. Also in this list is water and milk contaminated by sewage and frozen chicken.
• Salmonellae causes typhoid and it can be destroyed by heating food.
• Staphylococcus aureus is the most common
• Symptoms which include salivation, nausea and vomiting, abdominal cramp, diarrhoea, prostration and sweating take half an hour to 3 hours to be manifested
after been eaten.
• Sources are the human throat, nose, mouth and nasal passage, human skin that has open wounds and abrasions, boils, clothing and dust.
• Contamination is caused through cold meat, meat sources, gravies, fish and fish products and dairy products.
• Staphylococcus is heat destroyed. The toxins produced are heat resistant and require more heat to destroy. Also, food should be handled properly and wounds be covered.